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21-Sep-2020 07:40

In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity.Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions.

Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.Th is a constant during the period when the sediment layer was formed, that the sediment did not already contain thorium before contributions from the decay of uranium, and that the thorium cannot migrate within the sediment layer.electron configuration in the ground state, as the 5f and 6d subshells in the early actinides are very close in energy, even more so than the 4f and 5d subshells of the lanthanides: thorium's 6d subshells are lower in energy than its 5f subshells, because its 5f subshells are not well-shielded by the filled 6s and 6p subshells and are destabilised.Thorium's melting point of 1750 °C is above both those of actinium (1227 °C) and protactinium (1568 °C).

At the start of period 7, from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase (as in other periods), because the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases from one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four.Thorium has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, with atomic weight 232.0377(4).



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